**by: noor Fitrihana**

** **Banyak metode yang dapat digunkan untuk mengumpulkan data dan menganalisis masalah. Shoji Shiba and David Walden (2002) membuat ringkasan* tool* dan teknik yang digunakan untuk peningkatan kualitas yaitu

1. **5 Ss** :Methods of keeping a work area organized for maximum productivity. Hirano

2. **7 QC Steps (QC Story**): A set of steps to follow in solving many kinds of problems (also used to report on the improvement process).

3. **Affinity diagram** : Organizes ideas and issues so as to understand the essence of a situation and possible follow-on actions.

4. **Analysis of variance:** Comparing various estimates of variation among subgroups to detect differences between subgroup averages.

5. **Arrow diagram** :Shows the network of tasks and milestones required to implement a project.

6. **Benchmarking**: Comparing your process with a “best in class” process to learn *how *to improve your process.

7. **Brainstorming** :Allows a team to creatively generate ideas about a topic in a judgementfree atmosphere.

8. **Capability measures and ratios**: Various ratios and measures of the natural variation of process outputs (for instance, 3 standard deviation limits) and specification limits.

9. **Causal loop diagram** : A more sophisticated cousin of a relations diagram

10. **Cause-and-effect diagram** (or Ishikawa orfishbone diagram): Organizes data in terms of cause-and-effect such that the root cause of a situation may be revealed.

11. **Central tendency and dispersion of data**: Measures of the location and spread of data, e.g., mean and standard deviation, median and range, etc.

12. **Check sheet (tally sheet**): Tallies of problems or characteristics appropriately organized on a page.

13. **Control chart** : Quantifying variation and separating signal from noise. Typically used to monitor that a process is continuing to operate reliably; also **used to detect if a change to a process has had a significant effect.**

14. **Design of experiments**: Strategies for selecting a limited number of runs (observations of responses) in a possibly high-dimensional factor space so as to gain the maximum information about how the response values depend on the factors.

15. **Graphs and graphical methods**: Many different techniques for showing data visually and analyzing it.

16. **Histogram**: Shows the centering, dispersion, and shape of the distribution of a collection of data.

17. **Language Processing diagram**: A more structured and effective version of an affinity diagram, derived from the same source as the affinity diagram (Jiro Kawakita’s KJ diagram).

18. Matrix data analysis: Various multivariate analysis methods.

19. Matrix diagram: Shows multi-dimensional relationships.

20. **Pareto chart (analysis,diagram):** Like a histogram but with the data sorted in order of decreasing frequency of events and with other annotations to highlight the “Pareto effect” (e.g., the 20 percent of the situations that account for 80 percent of the results).

21. **Poka-yoke (mistake proofing):** Methods to prevent mistakes from happening.

22. **Process decision program chart (PDPC):** Explicitly lists what can go wrong with a project plan (organized in a tree diagram) and provides appropriate counter-measures.

23. **Process discovery:** For an activity, making explicit the customers, products and services,needed inputs, customer requirements and measures of satisfaction, process flow, and so forth.

24. **Queuing theory**: Analysis of delays and waiting lines.

25. **Regression analysis**: Analyzing the relationship between response (dependent) variables and influencing factors (independent variables).

26. **Relations diagram**: Shows a network of cause-and-effect relationships.

27. **Run chart or record**: A version of a scatter (x-y) plot where data values over time (the x axis) are plotted (on the y axis).

28. **Scatter (or x-y) diagram (plot):** A graphical way of showing correlation between variables.

29. **Sampling:** Selecting a few instances from a set of events from which to infer characteristics of the entire set.

30. **Statistical tests**: For instance, various ways of testing hypotheses.

31. **Stratification of data**: Classification of data from multiple viewpoints, such as what, where, when, and who.

32. **Tree diagram: **Organizes a list of events or tasks into a hierarchy.

Secara umum Tool yang diungakan untuk proses peningkatan kualitas dapat dikategorikan dalam 2 jenis:

1. Tool untuk pemecahan masalah secara konsep

§ Affinity Diagram

§ Brainstorming

§ Process Flow Chart

§ Interrelational Diagraph

§ Matrix Diagram

§ Tree Diagram

§ Cause and Effect Diagram

2. Tool untuk mememcahkan secara numeric

§ Check Sheet

§ Bar Chart

§ Histogram

§ Pareto Chart

§ Control Chart

§ Run Chart

** **** **** **** **** **

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